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Actinomycosis - Symptoms & Treatment

Actinomycosis is a chronic infection. Actinomycosis is gradually progressive bacterial infection chiefly caused by the anaerobic bacillus Actinomyces israelii. It is a inflammatory illness of livestock, hogs, and occasionally humans and it is characterized with lumpy tumors of the mouth, neck, and chest. It is also called lumpy jaw. Actinomycosis affects three times as many males as females, with peak occurrence in middle decades. People with human immunodeficiency virus infection are at increased hazard.

Actinomycosis is typically found in the gums and jaw. This is because the organism is always present in the mouth. It is usually harmless but occasionally penetrates the gums to cause a serious infection and swelling of the jaw and the formation of a boil that discharges pus through the skin. If the microbe is swallowed, it may cause an infection of the digestive tract with discharges of pus through the sinuses, which develop between the gut and the skin of the abdominal wall.

The Actinomycosis disease may later spread to involve the liver and spleen and if untreated may then prove fatal. Diagnosis of actinomycosis is typically made after laboratory testing. The pus must be analyzed in order to discover the presence of the actinomycetes bacterium. The tests also look for yellow sulphur granules in the pus, which are a gesture of actinomycosis.

Actinomycosis is approximately invariably a synergistically-mixed infection of distinct species of actinomyces and other bacteria - some would consider the plural actinomycoses more correct due to this polyaetiology. Actinomycosis is a great 'mimic', and symptoms and signs may firstly be thought to be due to other diseases, specifically malignancy.

Causes of Actinomycosis

Some causes & risk factors of Actinomycosis are as follows:

  • Actinomyces israelii is a general cause of Actinomycosis.
  • Dental abscess other oral surgery both are the general cause of actinomycosis.
  • It is generally occur in the face and neck because of bacterium's common location is nose and throat.
  • Actinomyces creates diseases because of its introduction in to facial tissues by trauma, surgery, other infection.

Symptoms of Actinomycosis

Some sign and symptoms related to Actinomycosis are as follows:

  • Shortness of the breath.
  • Minimal or no pain.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Commonly includes the mouth.
  • Abscess formation.

Treatment of Actinomycosis

Treatment for actinomycosis is typically a series of antibiotics, most generally penicillin. These are injected in the beginning and followed up with oral antibiotics. If the infection is severe, the cure may last for up to 12 months. In a few cases, surgery may be necessary in order to drain the abscesses. Surgery may also be necessary to remove the sinuses and some infected lumps. The passages that leak pus may need to be sealed off if they have development into the bones. The best way to prevent actinomycosis is to keep an excellent standard of hygiene. The infection can spread through decaying teeth, so regular dental checkups are significant. People who are other susceptible to the infection involve pregnant women and those with weak immune systems.

  • Treatment for actinomycosis is long period; Drug treatment of actinomycosis involves high-dose penicillin other tetracycline therapy for 2 to 6 weeks.
  • The cure of actinomycosis used to be excision of necrotic tissue, afterward cauterization.
  • Other drugs have also been effective. Actinomycosis is hard to care for because of its thick tissue location.
  • Surgical treatment may involve incision and drainage of abscesses.


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