Alopecia Mucinosa - Symptoms & Treatment
Alopecia Mucinosa is a condition caused because of mucin deposition in hair follicles and sebaceous glands, which undergo epithelial reticular degeneration resulting into follicular papules other plaques related with hair loss. It usually affects the scalp, face, and neck. Alopecia mucinosa is too known as follicular mucinosis, a word also used to describe the look of mucin around hair follicles as seen under the microscope. Mucins look like thready clear or whitish go and in the skin are mainly made up of hyaluronic acid (a common component of the ground substance surrounding collagen in the dermis).
Some other forms of mucinosis are described. Alopecia mucinosa usually presents as vaguely scaly bald patches in which the follicles are unusually prominent. Alopecia mucinosis is distinguished from lymphoma related follicular mucinosis by microscopic assessment and gene rearrangement studies.
Alopecia mucinosa, frequently referred to as follicular mucinosis, was initially reported by Pinkus in 1957. The dermatologic explosions consist of follicular papules and/or indurated plaques that demonstrate distinctive histologic alterations in the hair follicles that lead to hair loss. The accumulation of mucinous material in the injured hair follicles and sebaceous glands creates an inflammatory condition and ensuing degenerative process. For some unidentified reason (thought to be associated to our immune system) cells in the hair follicle generate an abnormal quantity of mucin causing a variety of skin lesions include hair loss (alopecia) and occasionally scarring. It is found in children or adults in the 3rd or 4th decade of life. The adult form tends to have other skin lesions and be final longer than the form usually found in kids.
A variety of cures have been tried with some success but most lesions resolution within months to two years. Urticaria-like follicular mucinosis is very odd. It typically occurs in middle aged men on the head and neck. Red lesions are often seen and hair loss is odd. The disease can final for years and may resolution on its own. It is not thought to be related with any systemic illness.
Causes of Alopecia Mucinosa
Some causes & risk factors of Alopecia Mucinosa are as follows:
- Cell-mediated immunity.
- Follicular injure leading to hair loss.
- Circulating immune complexes.
Symptoms of Alopecia Mucinosa
Some sign and symptoms related to Alopecia Mucinosa are as follows:
- Hair loss.
- Reddened plaques other patches on the scalp, face, and neck.
- These are usually 2-5 cm in diameter but can be larger.
Alopecia Mucinosa Treatment
- UVA1 phototherapy.
- Topical nitrogen mustard, and radiation therapy.
- Topical, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids.
- Medications such as dapsone, indomethacin, and interferons.
- Oral antibiotics such as minocycline.