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Cryptococcosis - Symptoms & Treatment


Cryptococcosis, or cryptococcal disease, is a potentially deadly fungal illness.  It is caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species intricate, comprising the three variants C. neoformans v. gattii (Cryptococcus gattii), C. neoformans v. neoformans, and C. neoformans v. grubii. Cryptococcosis is supposed to be obtaining by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the atmosphere. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the foremost hypothesis is the basidiospore created through reproduction. Cryptococcosis is most commonly seen in weak immune system patients such as HIV positives and also cancer patients. If it is left ignored it can lead to permanent brain other nerve injure. It can be detected using skin and lung biopsy, CSF culture and stain. Cryptococcosis is most generally seen in males than in females. The rate of illness in non-AIDS patients is 15-25% compared with >50% in AIDS patients.

Cryptococcosis (also known as torulosis and European blastomycosis) usually starts as a pulmonary infection that generates no signs or symptoms. It then disseminates to more pulmonary sites, include the central nervous system (CNS), skin, bones, prostate gland, liver, and kidneys. With cure, the prognosis in pulmonary cryptococcosis is good.

Causes of Cryptococcosis

Some causes & risk factors of Cryptococcosis are as follows:

  • Cryptococcal disease.
  • Inhaling the fungus.
  • Wound other cutaneous cryptococcosis.

Symptoms of Cryptococcosis

Some sign and symptoms related to Cryptococcosis are as follows:

  • Swelling of abdomen.
  • Headache.
  • Cough.
  • Confusion.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Bruises.
  • Nerve pain.
  • Swollen glands.

Cryptococcosis Treatment

Without treatment (specifically in immunocompromised patients), the illness can lead to CNS infection and death (invariably within 3 years). Treatment dramatically reduces mortality but not necessarily neurologic deficits, such as paralysis and hydrocephalus. Cryptococcosis is particularly likely to arrack immunocompromised patients, specifically those with Hodgkin's disease, sarcoidosis, leukemia, other lymphomas and those taking immunosuppressant drugs. The incidence is growing, particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cryptococcal meningitis is often deadly, especially if untreated.

  • Antiretroviral treatment (ART).
  • Antifungal therapy with either amphotericin B other fluconazole is the best treatment choice for CNS infection.
  • In a few rare cases, complete removal of the ventricles and further a CSF shunt to prevent intracranial pressure, may be required.
  • Patients with AIDS will also require long-term therapy, usually with oral fluconazole.
  • If pulmonary lesions are present, antifungal drugs may be prescribed. Some of the medications may be:- Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Fluconazole.

 

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